Americans of Chinese descent, including those with partial Chinese ancestry constitute 1.2% of the total U. There were 25,000 immigrants by 1852, and 105,465 by 1880, most of whom lived on the West Coast.
The Chinese Government considered this act a direct insult, but was unable to prevent its passage.
In 1892, Congress voted to renew exclusion for ten years in the Geary Act, and in 1902, the prohibition was expanded to cover Hawaii and the Philippines, all over strong objections from the Chinese Government and people.
The domestic factors ultimately trumped international concerns.
In 1888, Congress took exclusion even further and passed the Scott Act, which made reentry to the United States after a visit to China impossible, even for long-term legal residents.
Congress later extended the Exclusion Act indefinitely.
The initial immigration group may have been as high as 90% male due to the Chinese Exclusion act, resulting in most immigrants coming with the thought of earning money, and then returning to China to start a family.
Therefore, many of the non-Chinese workers in the United States came to resent the Chinese laborers, who might squeeze them out of their jobs.
Furthermore, as with most immigrant communities, many Chinese settled in their own neighborhoods, and tales spread of Chinatowns as places where large numbers of Chinese men congregated to visit prostitutes, smoke opium, or gamble.
Chinese immigrants were particularly instrumental in building railroads in the American west, and as Chinese laborers grew successful in the United States, a number of them became entrepreneurs in their own right.
As the numbers of Chinese laborers increased, so did the strength of anti-Chinese attitude among other workers in the American economy.
Those that stayed in America faced the lack of suitable Chinese brides, because Chinese women were not allowed to immigrate to the US in significant numbers after 1872.