Susruta Samhita devotes a full chapter to the management of obstructed labour, and describes about one hundred and twenty one blunt and sharp instruments.The decapitators were used in obstetrics in Asia and Europe till the mid of 20th century CE., revealing that they remained unchanged for about two thousand years.
Furthermore, a considerable part of Mülasarvästiväda Vinaya of the Gilgit manuscript was also devoted to the medical knowledge.
The Pre-Buddhist Medical Development in Gandhära The Buddhist philosophy and practice were strongly involved in medical theory and practice, since its inception (Ratanakul, 2004: 2).
Archaeologically, the surgical instruments from the pre-partition Marshall's excavation of the city of Taxila reveal the medical practice in the 3rd century BCE, even before the invasion of Alexander in Taxila (see PI. The decapitators were used in the obstetric operations, to cut through the neck of the üead foetus during severely obstructed labour.
Out of the total six decapitators, two were excavated from Bhir Mound (3rd century BCE).
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According to the Ayurvedic philosophy occasional fasting is thought to promote health (White 2004: 21).
Some Indian formulae that sharpened memory beyond imagination are also described in this literature (Agarwal and Lalit, n.d.). Taxila Museum is the only place in the Indian Subcontinent where surgical instruments consisted of decapitators, probes and spatula, are exhibited (Naqvi, 2003: 91).
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