Additionally, no satisfactory mechanism for macromutations has been proposed by modern neo-Darwinists. Intelligent Design postulates an intelligent source, and creationists conclude the source is the Creator we call God.Today, many evolutionists assume that a large number of small mutations can account for macroevolution. Summary Almost a century after Bergson, neo-Darwinists still hotly debate the source of new genetic information that they believe propels macroevolution (Sterelny 2001).Hugo De Vries (1848-1935) demonstrated from his research on the evening primrose that dramatic new varieties and traits can arise suddenly without explanation.
He concluded that the origin of major new animal and plant varieties was due to "hopeful monsters," single mutations involving large and complex changes.
We now know that hundreds or thousands of mutations are required to produce all the changes needed to evolve a new animal order.
Although deeply influenced by Herbert Spencer, John Stewart Mill, and Charles Darwin, Bergson's theory was largely a reaction to their philosophy and naturalistic worldview.
Some claim that he was trying to accommodate evolutionism and theism, but his writings argue his was the only viable solution to the very real and serious problems that he identified with Darwinism. the functioning of the whole would be impaired" (Goudge 1967, 292).
The most serious one that Bergson tried to explain was the fact that Darwinism offered no satisfactory explanation for the source of new genetic information from which natural selection could select.
Bergson's theory proposed a non-Darwinian mechanism to produce new genetic information that, in turn, allowed well documented mechanisms, including natural selection, to function (Bothamley 2002).Bergson used "detailed scientific arguments as well as philosophical ones" to support his view and gained many followers among well-educated intellectuals, including Alfred North Whitehead and philosopher George Santayana (Bothamley 2002).The theory did not gain lasting followers among naturalistic biologists, though, and his theory of origins has now been abandoned, largely due to a lack of empirical evidence.Introduction The key elements of neo-Darwinism are creation of biological variety and natural selection of the more fit organisms. Difficulties that still remain include the problem of the of the fittest and the transformation of one species into another.Darwin was aware that his solution to this problem was merely "a provisional hypothesis or speculation," but he believed that it was the best theory so far devised that could explain the origin of the species "until a better one be advanced." He also believed that his theory would "serve to bring together a multitude of facts which are at present left disconnected by any efficient cause" (Darwin 349-350).In the decades around 1900, several neo-Darwinian theories were developed to explain the origin of new biological information, most all of which have now been rejected (Bowler 1990).